History of lotteries in the USSR
According to the theory of communism, money is a relic of the past, therefore in 1918 a decree was issued prohibiting any gambling. But since funds were needed to solve social problems, after three years, lottery games were allowed again. Naturally, they were under strict state control. In the 50s, lotteries began to gain popularity. The winnings were impressive - home appliances, cars, apartments. There were also more modest gifts. – clock, cameras, bicycles and more.
History of lotteries in the USSR
Forced distribution of tickets was often practiced. They were given for change, distributed at work through trade unions, made it a burden when buying certain goods. No wonder phrases from a comedy “The Diamond Arm” became popularly winged. And then they organized the famous for the whole Union “Sportloto”, and millions of people froze in front of their screens, waiting for the results. Information about modern Russian lotteries is presented in the article titled Russian lotteries.
Hopefully, you were interested in learning about the history of lotteries on different continents and at different times.
Lotto in culture
In story A. P. Chekhov's "Children" children left unattended in the evening play loto: 2 brother, 2 sisters and son of the cook. Schoolboy Vasya also wanted to "enter" their game, but because of that, that instead of the agreed rate in 1 he put a penny in a ruble, children refused to take him into play.
In Soviet times, the game became a symbol of philistinism, "Former", disenfranchised: in the film "Light over Russia"(1947) character Optimist (performed by Rostislav Plyatt) exclaims: “Let's ... play loto! They will come to pick us up - and we sit and play loto!».
Lottery TV games and broadcasts
- Sportloto 19 October 1970 1-Ostankino Channel - January 2004 NTV
- Russian lotto 16 October 1994 RTR / Russia, Sports, NTV is a commercial version of the popular game "loto". Has the status of a state lottery. Prizes are like cash, and clothing (apartments, cars, etc.). Draws are held on the NTV channel weekly. Host - Mikhail Borisov.
- Bingo TV 1997 Petersburg - Channel Five
- Golden Key 20 December 1997 — 6 june 2015 TV Centr (20.12.1997 — 25.07.1998), RTR / Russia (06.03.1999 — 19.08.2006), NTV (02.09.2006 — 06.06.2015)
- Golden Key 6 of 36 20 september 2014 — 6 june 2015 NTV
- Generous lotto 31 December 2001 — 31 August 2002 REN TV
- Fair game 8 july 2004 — 24 Martha 2007 REN TV / REN TV
- Ball of luck 1 December 2002 — 20 Martha 2005 NTV (01.12.2002 — 29.08.2004), TVC (24.10.2004 — 20.03.2005)
- We play Keno 27 april 2003 — 22 february 2004 NTV
- Trump card 23 september 2006 — 28 june 2014 NTV
- Golden cubes 20 January - 28 july 2007 NTV
- Russian troika 4 August 2007 — 28 june 2014 NTV
- Happy Birthday! 23 september 2007 — 27 february 2008 NTV
- Super lottery 27 february 2005 - currently the First National Channel(Byelorussia)
- Lotto gold 22 february 2003 - currently the National Lottery of Ukraine (Ukraine)
History of lotteries in Europe
IN 1515 year in the Republic of Genoa, during the elections to the Great Council, 90 applicants. However, so that of these 90 choose five, a special draw was organized.
Here we want to mention the wonderful work "Lottery in Babylon" by Jorge Luis Borges, which of course does not rely on real historical facts and is fiction, but nevertheless it is an interesting development of the topic of this article. It is about, how the lottery turned from fun to a fundamental principle as an individual, and the whole society.
IN 1520 year the French king Francis, taking into account the difficult situation of the state treasury, signed a decree on the organization of lotteries. Lottery wheels were installed in five major cities of the country, from which citizens pulled tickets.
In the 1820s lotteries in France were not carried out until 1933 of the year.
FROM 1863 years on the territory of modern Italy, regular national lotteries began to be held.
In England lotteries were organized by the state with 1559 years - from the first year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. During this period, the UK experienced financial difficulties. About forty thousand tickets were issued, and the winners received various financial prizes. The income received went to the restoration of seaports and other public needs. At the state level, lottery games in the UK were held before 1825 of the year, when the authorities had to abandon them under pressure from the parliamentary opposition. However, the British Museum was built with lottery funds, London aqueduct, several bridges and other important infrastructure.
The oldest currently run lottery with 1726 of the year – in the Netherlands.
King Karl brought the lottery to Spain. In December 1763 the first draw of the Spanish national lottery La Primitiva was drawn. It continues to this day. О The Primitive, as well as other modern European lotteries you can read in the article European lotteries.
IN 1863 year, when the process of unification of Italy was completed, the history of Italy's first national lottery Lotto began, which was held every week.
IN 1930 Irish state lottery draws were held in Ireland, which quickly became in demand in the USA and Canada. There were also charity lotteries, for hospital financing.
20 October 1973 the second game appeared - Sportloto-2, the circulation of which took place after the main. Card "Sportloto-2", cost 60 kopecks, since she took part in two draws at once, held in one day, thereby increasing the chances of winning. And the draws began to be carried out using a lottery drum, which was designed and built by chief engineer Väino Paasik and locksmith Kalju Turya from the Special Design Bureau of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. The device they created mechanically mixed and automatically removed the winning balls.
FROM 10 january 1974 Years of the Sportloto lottery draws began in Moscow, at the studio of Central Television and broadcast on the first program and systems "Vostok" and "Orbit", and millions of lottery fans got the opportunity to watch the draws on TV. The melody of Gershon Kingsley "Popcorn" performed by the ensemble conducted by Meshcherin was used as musical accompaniment..
IN 2010 The Ministry of Defense decided to launch its own lottery. purpose, as it usually is, the good was declared - due to this step, it was planned to attract extra-budgetary funding for the development of the armed forces
screen news on lenta.ru - "The Ministry of Defense will make money on lotteries"
But, it looked too strange. The state finances the army, and up to this point no one has stated, that there is not enough money. Moreover, in the defense industry, such amounts are too small - 3 billion rubles, eg, would only be enough for 4 four Su-27 fighters. To all other, the Ministry of Defense had a lot of free land and real estate, worth about $ 20 billion (more than half of the annual military budget) - if additional financing is needed, even a part of these assets would be enough for everything.
But, in this case it was not about real needs. Military - they are, like children, they just want to help. The main thing is to state it loudly. You can punch through this and the necessary paper. AND, such paper (lottery permit) appeared very quickly, literally next month, Vladimir Putin signed Decree 964-r, providing to Spetsstroy of Russia (structural unit of the Ministry of Defense) permission to conduct 4 circulation and 12 unclean all-Russian state lotteries.
This order is also worth citing, to understand, what was it about
As we can see, there is no specifics here, details show up a little later.
History of lotteries in Russia and the USSR
Like many other innovations, lotteries appeared in Russia during the time of Peter the Great.
The first state lottery was established by Catherine II. She issued a lottery decree, funds from which were intended for the wounded military personnel. Need to say, that the ticket was expensive, and participate in the lottery, respectively, only wealthy people could.
Subsequently, lotteries in Russia were carried out mainly by various charitable organizers. But there were also state editions, of which two are known – 1892 years to help from crop failure and 1914 years in support of war victims.
Lotteries in the USSR
Since the communists who came to power, money as a relic of the past should soon disappear, then gambling should be prohibited. What was done in 1918 year by separate decree. However, already in 1921 year, the lottery was returned as a way to quickly consolidate funds for urgent needs - aid to the hungry and victims of the civil war.
Eventually, in the USSR, state lotteries were received from the very beginning of the state's existence.
Already in the 50s of the last century, Soviet lotteries began to officially deduct a percentage of funds to the budget. The winnings could be quite large: apartments, cars, motorcycles, Appliances. For the biggest winnings in lottery history, see the article Big jackpots. Besides, there were also relatively small prizes - bicycles, radios, cameras, hours and small sums of money. Sometimes lottery tickets were distributed "voluntarily-compulsorily" - as a burden to purchase, "For change", as part of wages. Lotteries were distributed by union and party officials, komsomol. In fact, the same habits have remained with some government offices to this day. So, Russian Railways forces conductors to distribute their lottery tickets on trains, and they do it quite intrusively.
Expressions from the movie The Diamond Arm became winged: "Who will take a pack of tickets, he will receive… water pump », "But if they don't take it, we will turn off the gas". Then "Sportloto" appeared and sitting in front of the TV, the country was waiting in suspense for the draws.
About sportloto in its modern form and other Russian lotteries, read the article Russian lotteries.
Changing lottery history
More modern versions of the lottery, such as the most popular USA games, Powerball и Mega Millions, appeared only some time after that. Beginning with 1992 of the year “Powerball” can play a total of 21 state, and also in the District of Columbia, in the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. Minimum jackpot – 40 million dollars, and the biggest recorded win in the game – more 1,5 billion dollars. This also makes it the largest jackpot in lottery history worldwide., and it was won by only three players in total.
When it comes to Mega Millions, actually it started after Powerball, and was originally known as The Big Game (Big game). The Big Game was founded in 1996 year, and c 2002 the year its name changed to The Big Game Mega Millions. From there he became known simply as “Megamillions” and became one of the most popular games in the country. Total 44 different states can play this game, including the District of Columbia and the US Virgin Islands, which puts her in twice as many places, than Powerball. Biggest Jackpot, ever won here, also amounted to slightly more 1,5 billion dollars, but a little less, than the largest Powerball jackpot.
History of lotteries in the USA
The history of lotteries in America actually began before the creation of the United States as an independent state.. IN 1612 year, a lottery was held to finance the 1st colony on the territory of the modern United States and in several years it raised enough money for the stated purpose. Throughout American history, lotteries have funded various social, military and other important tasks. At the same time, due to insufficient state control, lottery, which were in private hands, ceased to suit the population due to the numerous facts of fraud during the circulation (similar situation, in our opinion, it is developing in modern Russia. Read more in the article lottery fraud). Eventually, individual states, and, subsequently, the US federal authorities with 1892 to 1900 year completely banning lotteries at the legislative level.
Read about modern American lotteries in the article American lotteries.
Where and when did the lottery appear?
The appearance of the first tickets and the lottery are inextricably linked. There are many versions of the origin of the lottery. According to the assumptions of some scientists, the appearance of jokes is associated with ancient Greece., but most of the history of occurrence is associated with Ancient China or Rome. Approximately at 100 year BC, when the Han dynasty was in power, a lottery was held in China, like the current Keno game. As a result, huge funds were received, launched on the Great Wall of China. The ancient Roman rulers Nero and Augustus loved to arrange lotteries during the holidays., where slaves and property were played. There were also free lotteries for plebeians. Interesting is the appearance of the word "lottery". Linguists suggest its origin from the Frankish "hlot", ie. lot. In English, consider, what is the word "lot", ie. "Share". maybe, it was italian lotto, what does fate mean. Indeed, in essence, this game depends a lot on luck, peculiar to individuals, either from an unexpected twist of fate.
The emergence of the lottery in Europe
February 1466 r. is the date of birth of lottery games in Europe. At this time in g. Bruges (Belgium) the drawing took place, dedicated to the memory of the artist Jan Van Eyck. Its organizer was the artist's widow. Lottery funds donated to help those in need. Later lottery games, in which everyone took part, gained great popularity. All funds received were directed to the improvement of old and construction of new structures. To fill the state treasury, in 1520 year in France, the decree of King Francis was issued on the first lottery games in 5 large cities. IN 1530 r. Italian lottery was held in Florence, where the cash prizes were drawn for the first time. According to the decree from 1863 g., national lotteries are regularly held in Italy. But in France, the draws ceased to take place from the 1820s to 1933 r. To get out of the deep financial crisis with 1559 years there are lotteries in England. The funds received were used to repair ports, harbor, bridges and other structures were built. IN 1825 r. the British authorities refused to hold lottery games, because. it was demanded by the parliamentary opposition. Number lottery games were first held in Holland in 1726 year.
IN 1612 r. the first lottery in America took place. The collected funds were used to equip the first colony, which was founded on the territory of today's USA. Lotteries evolved chaotically, corrupted, there have been numerous cases of fraud. US lotteries were prohibited by law in the 1870s. IN 1971 the first state. In the 1980s, the popular instant lottery series appeared today.. 1983—1990. - the heyday of state lotteries in different countries, including in America.
The emergence of lotteries in Russia
During the reign of Peter the Great, watchmaker J. Gassenus organized the first lottery, into the state established by her decree Catherine II in 1782 year. State lotteries were also drawn in 1892 and 1914 years. In the first case, the funds were sent to help victims of crop failure, in the second - from the war. IN 1918 r. the Soviet government banned lotteries, as she considered them a relic of the past. IN 1921 r. financial instability and crop failures caused, that lotteries have been restored. In the following decades, many cash lotteries appeared.. IN 1970 r. appeared the sports-number lottery "Sportloto". Its format was based on the oldest number lottery "keno". Half of the proceeds went to support Soviet sports. Of 49 the player had to guess the numbers 6. Serial numbers have been assigned 49 sports. After the success of this lottery in 1976 r. game appeared 5 of 36, the proceeds from which were directed to the needs of the 1980 Olympics, and in 1986 - 6 of 45, replaced 6 of 49. Today there are many different very attractive lotteries. To protect your rights, it is better to choose state lotteries.
Rules of the game
The map has three rows and nine columns. 15 random numbers by 5 in a row; the tens digit corresponds to the left column number, counting from scratch; 90 is placed in the last column. The game is, that the players close the numbers on the cards, from 1 to 90, marked on special counters (more often wooden or plastic barrels). One of the participants in the game (usually in turn in each round) calls numbers, which he reads on the chips taken from the bag. Player wins, which will cover all numbers before either (by agreement) one or more horizontal rows on your card. In the latter case, the gain, depending on the closed row, may be only half a horse or not at all, just completing the current lap and starting the next: with the transfer of the right to "call out" to the next player and the need to do everything (possibly, except for the winner) new bets at stake. Bets are usually made "from each card" with the player's ability to play on several cards.
Bingo games are analogous to loto, where the lottery drum with balls is used: used in the USA 75 balls, In Great Britain (English)russian. — 90 balls. The one, who pronounces "bingo", closing all numbers, wins games like this.
Many numbers on barrels also have popular names., as traditional for a given number (eg 12 - dozen, 13 - Baker's dozen), and lotto-specific:
lotto number names
1 - unit, col, penny, ruble, Peter I2 - couple, couple, neud, goose, two boots - pair3 - trinity, pretzel4 - high chair, good 5 - five, excellent student 6 - Anton Pavlovich Chekhov ("Chamber №6")7 - seven wonders of the world, toporik8 - 8 Martha, Women's Day, matryoshka, wedding rings9 - Victory Day10 - hour, chervonets, bull's eye11 - drumsticks12 - dozen13 - goddamn dozen14 - Valentine's Day15 - fifteen year old captain16 - around sixteen17 - "where are my seventeen years old?" (quote from the song of Vladimir Vysotsky), Stirlitz18 - first time19 - coronavirus20 - swan lake21 - point22 - ducklings, geese-swans23 - two tributaries, three swaps24 - day to night - day away25 - again twenty-five26 - commissioners (Baku)28 - we mow hay29 - leap year 30 - <thirty years, and> no mind31 - happy new year!32 - three tributaries, two booty33 - heroes, curls36 - temperature (normal)38 - Petrovka 38, 38parrots 39 - Old Testament 40 - Ali Baba, old age 41 - eat alone 42 - forties fatal 43 - Stalingrad (battle 1943)44 - high chairs, forty-four funny siskins 45 - a woman is a berry again 47 - a woman is a berry at all, silver (atomic number of silver in the periodic table)48 - hay mowing, ask for a half 50 - half a hundred, fifty dollars51 - "great five and goalkeeper" (quote from the song "A coward does not play hockey")53 - cold summer of 53 (1953 year), death of Stalin55 - pensioner (retirement age for women), gloves56 - thaw (1956 year)57 - satellite (1957 year)60 - retiree (retirement age for men)61 - Gagarin (1961 flight year)63 - Tereshkova (1963 flight year)64 - chess (the number of cells on the chessboard)66 - felt boots, ninety nine69 - back and forth, shape-shifters70 - anniversary, ax in the lake75 - seven friday77 - hatchets, Semyon Semyonich79 - gold (the atomic number of gold in the periodic table)80 - grandmother, Moscow Olympics81 - grandmother with a stick, a girl with an oar82 - grandmother said in two 85 - perestroika (1985 year)88 - matryoshka, pretzels, grandmothers89 - grandfather's neighbor 90 - grandfather
There are different lotto variations, when the cards have other symbols. Lotto becomes a didactic game for teaching junior high school students about the rules of the road, development of combinatorial thinking in secondary school students